Ghana produces only 30 percent (?) of local demand. Importation of rice is therefore essential to provide food security. Yet, the Government of Ghana is “punishing” Ghanains by increasing rice prices through high import tariffs. This policy is under investigation and will be reported on in due course.
Rice Statistics in Ghana
The following are some statistics about rice in Ghana.
The graph below is significant in that it provides a double check on claims and other statistics provided by the Government of Ghana (GOG).
According to the statistics there was an are of 162,000 ha planted to rice in Ghana in 2009. As will be seen from the next graph MOFA statistics show that 235,000 metric tonne (MT) of rice was produced from the planted area. Simple calculations therefore says that the yield per ha must have been 1.45 MT/ha.
Mean Annual Growth Rates for Area Planted to Rice in Ghana
The graph below depicts the mean annual growth rates for area planted to rice in Ghana.
It is quite significant how the figures tend to “jump or dive” when government changes take place. When the NPP government took over in 2000, the areas planted to rice suddenly dropped significantly and then shot up significantly. When the NDC government took over the areas again increased significantly in line with its policy of self-sufficiency.
Production of Rice in Ghana
The following statistics were also sourced from the MOFA web site and shows the production of rice in Ghana in metric tonnes.
Estimated Levels of Per Capita Consumption of Rice in Ghana (Kg/head/year)
The per capita consumption of rice in Ghana has steadily grown from 12.4 Kg in 1980 to 15.1 Kg in 2005 as indicated in the table below.
However, according to the National Rice Development Strategy (NRDS) for Ghana the per capita rice consumption in Ghana is currently 38 kg and that is expected to rise to 63kg in 2015, giving an aggregate demand of 1.68mn metric tonnes.
Rice Balance Sheet (2009/2010)
According to MOFA reports, the Rice Balance Sheet for 2009 – 2010 indicated a local supply of 34.7% while imported rice filled the demand gap of 65.3% in 2009 – 2010.
Real Average Rural Wholesale Price (GH¢) Per Mt. (2002 Constant Prices)
The graph below clearly indicates the huge price spike in 2008. Although the percentage rise in the price of rice slowed down, prices did not come down. What will be significant is to see what prices did in 2010 – 2011 during the second wave of global food crisis.
Yield of Rice in Ghana (Mt/ha)
The yield of rice in Ghana was reported to reach an all-time high in 2009 of 1.45 Mt per ha.
What is possible in terms of improvement of yields? If one looks at the Philippines as case study, it was reported that the Philippines improved its yields of rice production from 1.16 tons per hectare in 1960 (according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) to 3.59 tons per hectare in 2009 (according to the Republic of the Philippines, Department of Agriculture).
This remarkable turnaround did not happen overnight – in fact it involved:
- 49 years;
- Adoptation of ed more than 75 IRRI-bred high-yielding rice varieties since 1960
- Improvement in fertilizer and pest management strategies, and
- Implementing of water-saving technologies.
The following chart indicates the GOG’s planning gap to achieve its stated policy of achieving self-sufficiency with regards to rice production in Ghana. It basically states that at current yields of 1.45 Mt/ha one of two things must happen:
- Increase yield by 245% from 1.45Mt/ha to 3.56 Mt/ha, or
- Increase area under rice cultivation by 245% from 162,000 ha to 397,400 ha.
National Rice Development Strategy (NRDS) Ghana PDF Download